Artificial Intelligence - how to get it right. NHSX. October 2019. Available from URL: https://transform.england.nhs.uk/media/documents/NHSX_AI_report.pdf
Liu X, Faes L, Kale AU, Wagner SK, Fu DJ, Bruynseels A, et al. A comparison of deep learning performance against health-care professionals in detecting diseases from medical imaging: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Digital Health. 2019 Oct 1;1(6):e271–97. Available online at: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/landig/article/PIIS2589-7500(19)30123-2/fulltext
Obermeyer Z, Powers B, Vogeli C, Mullainathan S. Dissecting racial bias in an algorithm used to manage the health of populations. Science. 2019 Oct 25;366(6464):447–53. Available online at: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.aax2342
Seyyed-Kalantari L, Zhang H, McDermott MBA, Chen IY, Ghassemi M. Underdiagnosis bias of artificial intelligence algorithms applied to chest radiographs in under-served patient populations. Nat Med. 2021 Dec;27(12):2176–82. Available online at: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-021-01595-01.
The health of people from ethnic minority groups in England [Internet]. The King’s Fund. 2021 [cited 2022 Apr 12]. Available from: https://www.kingsfund.org.uk/publications/health-people-ethnic-minority-groups-england1.
Khan SM, Liu X, Nath S, Korot E, Faes L, Wagner SK, et al. A global review of publicly available datasets for ophthalmological imaging: barriers to access, usability, and generalisability. The Lancet Digital Health. 2021 Jan 1;3(1):e51–66. Available online at: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/landig/article/PIIS2589-7500(20)30240-5/fulltext1.
Wen D, Khan SM, Xu AJ, Ibrahim H, Smith L, Caballero J, et al. Characteristics of publicly available skin cancer image datasets: a systematic review. The Lancet Digital Health. 2022 Jan 1;4(1):e64–74. Available online at: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/landig/article/PIIS2589-7500(21)00252-1/fulltext1.
Ibrahim H, Liu X, Zariffa N, Morris AD, Denniston AK. Health data poverty: an assailable barrier to equitable digital health care. The Lancet Digital Health. 2021 Apr 1;3(4):e260–5. Available online at: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/landig/article/PIIS2589-7500(20)30317-4/fulltext1.
Parikh RB, Teeple S, Navathe AS. Addressing Bias in Artificial Intelligence in Health Care. JAMA. 2019 Dec 24;322(24):2377–8. Available online at: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2756196 1.
Chen IY, Pierson E, Rose S, Joshi S, Ferryman K, Ghassemi M. Ethical Machine Learning in Healthcare. Annu Rev Biomed Data Sci. 2021 Jul;4:123–44. Available online at: https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-biodatasci-092820-114757 1.
Bennett JE, Pearson-Stuttard J, Kontis V, Capewell S, Wolfe I, Ezzati M. Contributions of diseases and injuries to widening life expectancy inequalities in England from 2001 to 2016: a population-based analysis of vital registration data. The Lancet Public Health. 2018 Dec 1;3(12):e586–97. Available online at: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanpub/article/PIIS2468-2667(18)30214-7/fulltext 1.
Marmot M, Allen J, Boyce T, Goldblatt P, Morrison J. Health Equity in England: The Marmot Review 10 Years On - The Health Foundation [Internet]. London: Institute of Health Equity; 2020 [cited 2022 Apr 13]. Available online at: https://www.health.org.uk/publications/reports/the-marmot-review-10-years-on